Extraction

The Source of the LNG: Gas Fields off the north-east coast of Qatar in the Arabian Gulf

Natural Gas is piped from Qatar's North Field gas reserves in the Arabian Gulf. It is the largest single, non-associated gas reservoir in the world and it is estimated that the proven reserves are in the range of 900 trillion cubic feet, almost 10% of the world’s known reserves.

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Map of the region around Qatar
Natural gas is produced in subsurface gas reservoirs and reached through drilling
The North Field is the largest single, non-associated gas reservoir in the world
Two LNG trains, each with a capacity of 7.8 million tons per annum, process the natural gas
Map outline of Qatar
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Qatar has an LNG export capacity of 77 million tonnes per annum.
Offshore Oil Platform
Offshore Oil Platform
Offshore Oil Platform
Offshore Oil Platform
Offshore Oil Platform
Offshore Oil Platform
Offshore Oil Platform NORTH FIELD
The North Field has three offshore platforms
The North Field is the largest single, non-associated gas reservoir in the world
The South Hook LNG Terminal is part of the Qatargas 2 integrated supply chain
6,000
square kilometres
The North Field covers a total of 6,000 square kilometres equivalent to about half the land area of Qatar

Liquefaction

Natural Gas Treatment and Liquefaction

The natural gas is piped from the gas field to a processing plant at Ras Laffan Industrial City in the North East of Qatar where it is cleaned of impurities and liquefied by cooling it to a temperature of approximately minus 160 degrees centigrade.

The natural gas is piped to a processing plant at Ras Laffan Industrial City in the North of Qatar
The natural gas is piped to a processing plant at Ras Laffan Industrial City in the North of Qatar
The natural gas is cleaned of impurities
Natural gas burns more cleanly and efficiently than other fossil fuels, reducing emissions.
The natural gas is liquefied by cooling it to a temperature of approximately minus 160 degrees centigrade.
LNG is stored at sub-zero temperatures in insulated storage tanks, similar to large thermos flasks.
When natural gas is liquefied it is reduced to one six hundredth of its original size, making it easier to transport.
LNG is transported from Qatar in the Arabian Gulf.
Qatar is the leading player in LNG world markets.
Qatar has an LNG export capacity of 77 million tonnes per annum, of which 20% is represented by the South Hook LNG Terminal in terms of regasification potential.
Abstract representation of a Liquefaction Complex Abstract representation of a Liquefaction Complex Abstract representation of a Liquefaction Complex
Abstract representation of a Liquefaction Complex
Abstract representation of a Liquefaction Complex
Abstract representation of a Liquefaction Complex Abstract representation of a Liquefaction Complex Abstract representation of a Liquefaction Complex
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1
LNG Vessel
If it was still in its gaseous state the natural gas would need 600 carriers to transport the same amount that 1 LNG vessel can carry.
LNG Ship
State-of-the-art double-hulled ships accommodate the low temperatures of LNG.
The cargo is not kept under pressure during the voyage.
Unlike conventional ships, Q-Flex and Q-Max ships are equipped with on-board liquefaction facilities so that cargo boil-off will be returned to the cargo tanks, maximising cargo delivery
These ships are revolutionary in terms of both their design and sheer size. The Q-Max ships are the largest LNG vessels ever to be built.
The Q Max ships are the same length as three and a half football pitches and are half as high as the London Eye.
The cargo tanks of the Q-Max ships could carry enough fuel to power a small car for 112 million miles, almost 4,500 times around the world, or over a 3rd of the way to the moon.
The LNG is transported 6,140 nautical miles from Qatar to Milford Haven.
The voyage takes up to 18 days through the Arabian Gulf, Red Sea, Suez Canal and the Mediterranean to the western entry point of the UK.
The Suez Canal connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez and the Red Sea. Located in Egypt, it is 101 miles (163 km) long and 984 feet
(300 m) wide.
It takes around 11 to 16 hours to pass through the canal.
The twenty nine member crew represents different nationalities from all over the world.
Crewmembers are often on board for up to three or four months; the ship becomes their home.
Positions on board work a standard nine hour shift, including breaks for meals and refreshments.
Duties vary. Each Engineer Officer takes watch in the Engine Room every four days.
Deck Officers are responsible for navigational watches, supervising the safe passage of the ship throughout the journey.
The on-board Safety systems are well understood by everyone on board the vessel.
Free time after 6pm is spent in the Gym or in the Recreation Room where peals of laughter can often be heard as crewmembers play table tennis, cards, PlayStation or watch movies.
Games such as Basketball tournaments are played on board, with the vessel’s Captain presenting an award to the champion of the vessel.
Daily contact with families and loved ones is important to everyone on board and having access to the Internet allows crewmembers to stay in touch
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Transportation

Shipping

When LNG is transported by sea it is pumped into double hulled ships, specially designed as part of the supply chain, to accommodate the low temperatures of LNG. The cargo is not kept under pressure during the voyage. The LNG is transported 6,140 nautical miles from Qatar to Milford Haven in West Wales. The voyage takes up to 18 days through the Arabian Gulf, Red Sea, Suez Canal and the Mediterranean, to the western entry point of the UK.

Abstract representation of a Liquefaction Complex
LNG Ship
LNG Ship
LNG Ship
Conventional LNG carrier
80% Larger than conventional LNG carriers
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4,500
Map of the region around Qatar Map of the region around Qatar
Map of the region around Qatar
LNG Ship

Regasification at South Hook LNG Terminal

A Receiving and Regasification Terminal

When arriving at South Hook LNG Terminal the LNG is pumped ashore into double-walled, insulated tanks, where it is stored at approximately minus 160 degrees centigrade. When it is needed, the LNG is converted back to natural gas through a process known as regasification: the LNG is passed through Submerged Combustion Vaporisers. Each Vaporiser includes a bundle of tubes housed in a bath of tepid water where the LNG is gently warmed to a point where it reverts to its gaseous state.

The gas is then transported via pipeline for distribution to residential, commercial and industrial end-users across the UK.

The journey ends at the South Hook LNG Terminal in Milford Haven in Pembrokeshire, West Wales.
Given its strategic location in the west of the UK, the shipping distance to Milford Haven from the source of natural gas is shorter than to many other potential sites, thus reducing transportation costs.
Milford Haven offers a safe, deep water anchorage that is readily accessible by large LNG carriers.
Over 100 acres of the South Hook LNG Terminal are dedicated as a Nature Conservation Area.
Proud to be part of the Pembrokeshire Community South Hook LNG has supported over 600 separate community projects, events and initiatives; this number is growing.
The jetty is capable of handling some of the largest LNG vessels.
1.5 million cubic metres of earth was excavated to limit visual impact of the 5 storage tanks.
Strategically placed ‘screening bunds’ were created - minimising the Terminal's visual intrusiveness.
The LNG is pumped into double-walled, insulated tanks, where the LNG is stored at approximately minus 160 degrees centigrade.
The LNG is converted back to natural gas through a process known as regasification.
The LNG is warmed gently to a point where it reverts to its gaseous state.
The gas is transported via pipeline for distribution to residential, commercial and industrial end-users across the UK.
South Hook LNG plays a key role in providing around 20% of the UK’s current natural gas needs.
Abstract representation of a Liquefaction Complex
Abstract representation of a Liquefaction Complex
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